European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) which was first introduced by the European Council in 1989 within the framework of Erasmus, now part of the Life Long Learning Programme, is a student-centred credit system based on the student workload required to accomplish the objectives of a programme specified as for learning outcomes and competences to be attained. Since its introduction, the implementation of ECTS has found a wide range of acceptance in the higher education systems across the European Countries and now become a credit system and an indispensable tool supporting major aims of the Bologna Process and, thus, of European Higher Education Area as it makes teaching and learning in higher education more transparent, comparable and measurable across Europe and facilitates the recognition of all studies. The system allows for the transfer of learning experiences between different institutions, greater student mobility and more flexible routes to gain degrees. It also offers a systematic approach to curriculum design as well as quality assessment and improvement and, thus, quality assurance.
Karabuk University (KBU) has adopted the use of ECTS system as a reference and transparency tool to design and define its study programmes and educational components and learning activities based on the educational objectives and learning outcomes in line with the level requirements of both the Turkish National Framework of Qualifications and the Framework of European Qualifications and its fields of studies in Higher Education, and uses its features such as credit allocation based on student workload as to learning, teaching, assessment and grading methods for designing, implementing, reviewing, improving and assuring the quality in educational and training processes. In order to achieve this main goal, Karabuk University has started at once developing its service, facilities, and campus automation system for enabling active and effective participation of all executive and academic staff of the institution in the development, implementation and further continuous enhancement of ECTS system.
At Karabuk University, one academic semester is 17 weeks, including examination weeks, and each academic semester normally has 30 ECTS (60 ECTS for an academic year). One ECTS Credit is equal to 25.5 hours of student workload - lectures, assignment, practical work, seminar, term paper, examination, and frees studies in the laboratory, library or at home and other assessment activities - per semester in the programme. Moreover, ECTS credits are also allocated to practical placements and to thesis preparation when these activities form part of the regular programme of study at both the home and host institutions.
However, Karabuk University includes all features of ECTS Information Package and provides home, foreign, exchange and candidate students, higher education institutions, employers and other stakeholders with detailed information, which makes easy trace on the institution, degree programmes at all levels of education as well as other useful information such as career and educational opportunities, social and cultural environment, recreation and sport activities and many more they may require for any need and concern in relation to the university.
ECTS Grading System
Examination and assessment results are usually expressed in grades. There are many different grading systems in Europe. To help institutions convert the grades awarded by host institutions to ECTS students, the ECTS grading scale has been developed. This provides additional practical information for the student's performance, yet does not replace the local grade. Higher education institutions make their own decisions on how to apply the ECTS grading scale to their own system.
In this respect, Karabuk University has developed its own grading system, which is compatible with the ECTS grading system. The table below is used to convert KBU grades to ECTS grades and vice versa.
Grade Conversion Table
G: Pass (Out of Grade)
G: Pass (Out of Grade)
F1: it is given to students who do not fulfil the requirements for attendance, and who do not have right to take the final or makeup examination, and thus its coefficient is zero.
F2: it is given to students who attend the classes regularly, but do not take the final or makeup examinations; its coefficient is zero.
F3: it is given to students who attend the classes regularly, take the final or makeup examinations, but whose percentage of the exam is below 50 or whose percentage of final grade is below 60; its coefficient is zero. It is also given to students who do not have right to take final or makeup examinations due to their inefficiency of practice.
K/E: it is given to students who fail the course. It is for non-credit courses
The students participating in ECTS receive full credit for all academic work successfully carried out at any of the ECTS partner institutions and they are able to transfer these academic credits from one participating institution to another as long as there is prior agreement between the institutions involved.
Most students participating in the ECTS scheme go to one single host institution in one single EU Member State, study there for a limited period and then return to their home institution. Some may decide to stay at the host institution and finish their degree there. Some may also decide to proceed to a third institution to continue their studies. In each of these three cases, students are required to comply with the legal and institutional requirements of the country and institution where they take their degree.
Once the student returns, the credit transfer takes place as previously agreed between the home and the host institutions. The student continues to study at the home institution without any loss of time and credit. If, on the other hand, the student decides to stay at the host institution and take his/her degree there, he/she may have to adapt his/her study course to legal, institutional and departmental rules in the host country, institution and department.
Students are not required to pay tuition fees at the host institution, yet they may be required to continue to pay their normal tuition fees to the home institution during the study period abroad.
The national grant/loan to which a student may be entitled for study at his/her institution may not be discontinued, interrupted or reduced while s/he is studying in another Member State and is receiving an ERASMUS grant
Ensuring full academic recognition
An ECTS study programme must be approved by both the home and the host institutions before the student leaves for the study period abroad. If the programme of study described in the learning agreement is completed satisfactorily by the student, it is fully recognised by the home institution.
The transfer of ECTS credits
Home and host institutions prepare and exchange transcripts of records for each student participating in ECTS before and after the period of study abroad. A copy of these transcripts is given to the student for his/her personal file. For detailed information, please see relevant regulation below: